|• 5 year study, funded by the National Institute of Child and Human Development (NICHD)
• A longitudinal survey with Korean American and Filipino American families with youth 12—18 year olds in Chicago and surrounding areas to formulate a cultursally appropriate family process model and examine its impact on youth outcomes
• Sample sizes: 490 youth and 490 moms for each group, a total sample size of 1,960 in Time 1 to follow for 4 years; Target retention rate of 85%
• Two stage sampling: Stage 1 – Random sampling to create an initial pod, using phone numbers and ethnic last names; Stage 2 – Stratified Response Driven Sampling (RDS)
• The initial pod enables estimation of sampling errors.
• In-person survey interview in Time 1 (Year 2) by highly trained bilingual interviewers and self-administered survey in Time 2 through Time 4 (Year 3 thru Year 5), either paper/pencil or web-based
• Year 1 is to develop new measures and test existing ones.
• Youth outcomes
- Worse behavioral indicators & mental health problems
• Filipino American parents
- Mostly English speaking; Relatively high socioeconomic status
• Familial culture
- Filipino value concepts such as amor propio, hiya, pakikisama, utang na loob, and bahala na
- Greater emphasis on interdependence, family obligation, family-centered activities and decisions, a sense of debt, compliance to the group needs, and acceptance of life events and responsibility
Filipino vs. Korean Americans
• Youth outcomes
- Similar in internalizing behaviors but dissimilar in externalizing behaviors
• Parental background
- Both high education level and middle-class income
- Health professional Filipinos and small business Koreans
• Cultural similarity and dissimilarity
- Interdependent, collectivistic and family oriented culture
- History of external dominance (e.g., colonial mentality vs. flunkeyism) but with a distinct pattern of ethnic pride and ethnic solidarity in the U.S. and the level of acculturation
Filipino/Korean Parent Measures
• Family harmony
- It is important to ensure harmonious relations with family members, even at the expense of my own desires.
• Amor Propio/Hiya/Che-myun체면
- If my child is not doing well, people I know will think I am a bad parent.
- I would feel embarrassed if my child doesn’t go to college.
- I constantly compare myself to others (e.g. physical appearance, career, marriage, income, etc.)
- I’d rather do things for my child than seeing him/her make mistakes or struggle.
Filipino/Korean Youth Measures
• Pressured to succeed
- When I get a poor grade, my parents make me feel guilty.
- When I get a good grade, my parents say my other grades should be as good.
- My parents want me to be the best at everything.
- I never felt like I could meet my parents’ standards.
• Perception of white parents
- Filipino/Korean parents are stricter than white parents.
- Filipino/Korean parents pressure their kids to get good grades more than white parents do.
- White kids have more freedom than Filipino/Korean kids.
• Critical opportunities to maximize youth potential and positive youth development
- An enhanced understanding of Asian American parenting and its impact on youth outcomes can help shape a course of acculturative changes in a direction that is most beneficial to youth.
- Preserve the “good” elements while discard the “bad” aspects
- Finding the right dose (or a combination) of parental control and warmth
• Practice and policy implication as well as day-to-day family process in the family